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Rikas Medical
The leading provider of fertility treatments to couples in Ukraine since 2013.
58, Zhylyanska Str., Kyiv-01033, Ukraine






In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

IVF is the method in which the woman’s ovaries are stimulated to produce eggs, the eggs are removed and fertilized using the male partner’s sperm in a laboratory, and the resulting embryos are placed into her uterus after a few days.

Why IVF is more effective than natural sexual intercourse?

IVF works better than natural sexual intercourse due to the next factors: 

  • Fertility medicines are utilized to produce more eggs than would develop naturally, 
  • Rather than your waiting for eggs to ovulate naturally, with IVF the eggs are retrieved by hand by your physician, 
  • IVF bypasses the fallopian tubes since the eggs are retrieved from the ovaries and moved into the uterus, 
  • Sperm is specifically prepared within the laboratory to allow them to steer clear of the many hurdles that sperm encounter inside a natural setting, for example cervical mucus and lengthy difficult paths, 
  • Most IVF programs transfer several fertilized eggs back to your uterus to enhance the likelihood of an effective pregnancy outcome.

Can IVF help you?

Typically, IVF is an efficient strategy to all reasons for infertility. One exception to this is when the female has major irregularities within her uterus, for example severe adhesions.

You may be helped with IVF if you are going through one of these simple fertility conditions: 

  • Hostile cervical mucus or any other problem concerning cervical mucus, 
  • Blocked or damaged fallopian tubes, 
  • Endometriosis, 
  • Inexplicable infertility, 
  • Male factor infertility (e.g., low sperm fertility, low mobility, low quality).

What about the man’s role in IVF?

The sperm used throughout your IVF procedure will come from either your partner or perhaps a sperm donor. Nearly all women would rather use sperm of their partner. Unless of course your partner has a low sperm fertility or very poor sperm quantity, his sperm can most likely be utilized in the IVF process. That is because his sperm is going to be cleaned and concentrated as well as specifically treated within the laboratory to boost the ability to fertilize your eggs. If he has inadequate sperm function, he might need to produce several semen samples on the couple of days for that laboratory to possess enough good-quality sperm to be used at the time of fertilization.

Obviously, if you need a sperm donor, this is arranged ahead of time. Sperm from the donor is frozen in advance and checked for medical conditions for example certain genetic disorders and STDs. Request your physician that specific exams are carried out at the laboratory.

How is IVF carried out?

Your fertility specialist will perform your IVF either in the doctor’s office or in an outpatient surgery facility. To improve your odds of success, the IVF procedure should be perfectly organized and perfectly timed. Most IVF programs follow these important steps. All these stages are talked about in greater detail right after the list: 

  • Ovulation stimulation, 
  • Egg retrieval, 
  • Semen collection and preparation, 
  • Fertilization, 
  • Embryo monitoring, 
  • Embryo transfer, 
  • Follow-up after IVF, 
  • Cryopreservation after IVF.

Ovulation stimulation

You will be given fertility medication to build up multiple eggs and stimulate ovulation. The typical protocol involves three kinds of medication: a GnRH agonist or antagonist to suppress your body’s hormones, a gonadotropin to stimulate follicle and egg development, and hCG to finalize egg development and trigger ovulation.

Your physician will talk about the precise medicines and timing along with you. Hormonal bloodstream levels and pelvic ultrasounds are carried out every couple of days to watch the progress of the developing hair follicles. The physician notes the amount of developing eggs and records how big each follicle is. When the hair follicles have arrived at their target size and you find between 10 and 30 developing hair follicles, the egg retrieval process is going to be scheduled.

Egg retrieval

Once the hair follicles are mature, the ultrasound led egg retrieval procedure is carried out. The objective of this task is to get the eggs out of your ovaries. The egg retrieval procedure is carried out in the doctor’s office or perhaps in an outpatient surgery facility. The typical time to perform this process is about twenty minutes. For your comfort, you can expect to get an anesthetic with this procedure.

Your physician will introduce a lengthy ultrasound probe into your vagina. This probe will transmit an obvious picture of your sex gland to the ultrasound monitor. The physician will pass a sterile needle and the ultrasound probe through the top of your vagina and in to the ovary and retrieve each developing egg.

You will have to recuperate and rest for around an hour following an egg retrieval. Throughout this time, your doctor’s lab worker, the embryologist, will check out the collected eggs and let you to know the number of high-quality eggs that were collected. Generally, you can go back to your normal routine the next day.

Sperm collection and preparation

Most labs require the sperm specimen within a couple of hours after egg retrieval. The semen will come to the laboratory, where it will be cleaned and separated from the liquid fraction. The cleaned sperm are put into a sterile medium after which it will be concentrated into a small volume. The sperm will be treated within the laboratory with a number of approaches to boost their capability to fertilize an egg.

The sperm are treated and incubated inside a special medium that alters the membrane in the sperm, growing enzymes that will be required for egg transmission and fertilization. The sperm will also be processed inside a centrifuge, which enables the laboratory to isolate the sperm of highest quality. Sometimes, labs will add a caffeine-like substance to the sperm to invigorate the sperm making them more active and mobile.

The objective of many of these sperm formulations is to make sure that the very best sperm can be obtained to fertilize your eggs.


In the laboratory, your recently collected eggs are put inside a Petri dish and combined with healthy sperm. The Petri dish has additional nourishment to the liquid in which the eggs and sperm are put, just as it might exist in your own body liquids and reproductive tract. The egg and sperm in Petri dish mixture will be put into an incubator and carefully supervised to determine what eggs become fertilized.

Fertilization, the actual entry of the sperm into the egg, usually happens within a couple of hours. An average goal for many labs for each collected mature egg it to achieve an over 70% possibility of fertilization. The fertilized eggs remain within the incubator to keep growing and become embryos.

Embryo monitoring

The embryos keep growing and develop within the incubator at normal body temperature, the same as the temperature of the uterus. The laboratory works as a temporary womb and guarantees the recently fertilized eggs are nourished and supervised carefully. Individuals that are growing and developing correctly will typically contain 4 to 8 cells within 2 or 3 days. This degree of development works as a guide to find out which of the embryos are developing normally and which are the very best candidates for transfer back to your uterus. At this time, the recently created embryos are ready for transfer to your uterus.

Embryo transfer

You ought to be as comfortable as possibly can be during the embryo transfer. Many doctors provide a relaxing medication or a sedative with this stage of IVF. Fortunately, the process is not uncomfortable and it takes only a couple of minutes to complete.

For that procedure itself, you will be put on the examination table with your feet in stirrups, mucj like the position you are in for any Pap test. Your physician uses an ultrasound to steer the positioning of the extremely thin and versatile catheter in your vagina and cervix and in your uterus. The lab assistant will load the embryos in to the catheter, and your physician will carefully inject the embryos to your uterus. When the catheter is withdrawn, the lab assistant examines the catheter within the laboratory to make certain that the embryos have been correctly transferred.

Although embryo transfer may be the smallest part of the IVF procedure, it is an essential and demanding aspect of the entire process. You will be requested to remain reclined for between half an hour and an hour. Throughout this time, you might experience mild abdominal or pelvic cramps. You may even see a slight vaginal discharge following the procedure.

Once transferred, the developing embryos must start to implant in your uterine lining over the following day or two.

Follow-up after IVF

Your physician provides you with instructions on what activities you need to do and cannot do after your IVF. Many women would rather relax for a day.

Based on your health background as well as your doctor’s preferences, you might begin using progesterone hormone supplementation to keep and stabilize the uterine lining for the following couple of days, for the case you are pregnant. Some IVF programs hold back until they are able to confirm the pregnancy, after they that begin hormonal therapy to support and keep the pregnancy. Still other IVF programs do not prescribe any hormones whatsoever following the transfer. This questionable problem does not have an obvious answer. Ask your physician which method would work best for you.

The physician will request you to make a follow-up appointment after your IVF procedure for pregnancy testing and early ultrasound monitoring. A positive bloodstream test may suggest the potential of getting pregnant. However, pregnancy is going to be confirmed by ultrasound, usually three days following the embryo transfer.

Cryopreservation after IVF

After your IVF treatment cycle, you may possess some leftover embryos. That is, healthy fertilized eggs were not moved to you since you already received a sufficient quantity. Many couples decide to freeze their leftover embryos, a procedure known as cryopreservation.

Does IVF hurt and do you know the risks?

You are typically sedated throughout the egg retrieval process and again throughout the embryo transfer process and for that reason you will feel quite comfortable. Nearly all women state that the process is painless and compare it to getting a Pap smear. Some women observe that following the procedure the have cramps, which often disappear with relaxation and a mild pain reliever.

Risks are infrequent in the IVF procedure, but you have to be conscious that they might occur.

Risks include: 

  • Infection, 
  • Bleeding, 
  • Multiple pregnancy, 
  • Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS).

Infection with bacteria or virus could occur throughout the IVF procedure from contaminated equipment or even the sperm itself. Bleeding is not likely but tends to happen throughout the egg retrieval area. If this happens, a bloodstream transfusion or surgery might be needed to fix the problem.

Because you use fertility medication to induce ovulation, you possess an elevated chance of multiple pregnancy. However, within the situation of IVF, your physician determines the number of embryos to transfer to your uterus and therefore ensure that a reasonable number is transferred. Talk with your physician about the number of embryos that you want to be moved to your uterus. You should also address in advance the issues related to any leftover embryos that will not be used throughout that treatment cycle.

In case your physician suspects OHSS, the IVF is going to be canceled for your treatment cycle. There has been some speculation about the potential of connecting IVF with an elevated incidence of birth defects. You should know that genetic irregularities increase with the female age or may be linked to the fact that a man has abnormal sperm. However, minimal evidence is available to support the suggestion the IVF procedure itself increases the chance of birth defects.

How effective is IVF?

Overall, the rate of success of IVF is between 25 and 50% per cycle. Rates vary with different number of variables. Generally, a greater rate of success is much more likely under these conditions: 

  • You are young and produce a high quantity of top quality of eggs, 
  • Your uterus is properly formed and free from skin damage or irregularities, 
  • The sperm quality is good, 
  • You are ready to endure the entire IVF procedure on several occasions, 
  • Your IVF team is gifted, skilled, and experienced.

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